Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.

There are 5 questions we need to ask, which are: “what, where, why, how, when” when we do a research. It requires the researcher to be critical which make the information gathered be precise and accurate.

There are two type of ways to understand the world, it’s either with Objectivism or Constructurism

Objectivism means that the knowledge exist apart from the operation of consciousness, while Constructurism means that the knowledge exist because of our engagement in the world.

When conducting research, it’s needed to be specific about the topics of investigation in context and questions, what makes it two different form of investigations, primary and secondary research.

Primary research is doing research first hand, meaning investigation and gathering information personally, e.g. first hand interviews.

Secondary research is the theoretical work or accounts from a distance from the event or object of study.

‘Though ‘secondary’ has connotations of being less authentic because it’s already mediated in some way, remember that every ‘record’ is a mediated account.’ (Branston & Stafford, 2010, p. 412)

There’s two types of research, qualitative or quantitative.

According to Denzin & Lincoln, qualitative research is ‘a situated activity that locates the observer in the world’ (2005: 3)

Quantitative research is the investigation and analysis of data in a numerical form, which is presented or perceived as being about the gathering of `facts’.

The methods used to conduct a qualitative research are:

  • Surveys
  • Interviews
  • Focus groups
  • Ethnography

The methods used to conduct quantitative research are:

  • Content analysis
  • Discourse analysis
  • Narrative analysis
  • Genre analysis

We are all researchers directly or indirectly. We research in our daily basis, that’s how we learn and progress.



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